The Praxis II Elementary Education exam (0014) is a comprehensive and rigorous assessment for prospective elementary educators. The exam has four major sections, each of which is covered by 30 questions and comprises about one quarter of the exam. The four major sections are reading/language arts, mathematics, social studies, and science.
Half of the reading/language arts section is devoted to foundations of reading. Within this subsection of the Praxis II Elementary Education exam (0014), the following subjects are treated: foundations of literacy and reading development, phonological awareness and phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, basic elements of fiction and nonfiction texts for children, basic elements of poetry and drama for children, uses of figurative language, and uses of resource material. In the language in writing subsection, which comprises 33% of the reading/language arts section, the following subjects are addressed: components of written language, types of writing, stages of the written process, stages of writing development, sentence types and sentence structure, and structures and organization of writing. The third and final subsection of the reading/language arts content area is communication skills, which comprises 17% and includes questions about aspects of speaking, listening, and viewing, as well as the roles of speaking, listening, and viewing in language acquisition for second-language learners.
In the mathematics content area of the Praxis II Elementary Education exam (0014), meanwhile, there are four subsections. The number sense and numeration subsection (40% of the content area) includes questions on prenumeration concepts; number systems; the four operations and their properties; number theory; solving problems and recognizing the reasonableness of results; and making, describing, and exploring numerical patterns and engaging in mathematical investigations. The algebraic concepts subsection (25% of the content area) covers basic algebraic methods and representations; associative, commutative, and distributive properties; additive and multiplicative inverses; special properties of zero and one; equalities and inequalities; and appropriate application of formulas. The informal geometry and measurement subsection (20% of the content area) covers properties of figures and relationships in two- and three-dimensional objects; transformations, geometric models, and nets; and nonstandard, customary, and metric units of measurement. Finally, the data organization and interpretation subsection (15% of the content area) addresses visual displays of quantitative information, simple probability and intuitive concepts of chance, fundamental counting techniques, and basic descriptive statistics. The Praxis II Elementary Education exam (0014) was developed by the Educational Testing Service.