1. A: According to the Koppen Climate Classification System, regions with continental climates are most commonly found in the interior regions of large landmasses. The continental climate is characterized by low levels of precipitation and large seasonal temperature variations.
2. B: Approximately 96.5 percent of seawater is comprised of hydrogen and oxygen. Although seawater does contain sodium, chlorine, magnesium, sulfur, and other dissolved solids, its primary components are the same substances that make up fresh water.
3. C: Overgrazing and deforestation directly contribute to soil erosion by destroying the natural groundcover that normally prevents soil from being washed and blown away. These activities can ultimately result in desertification, which renders land unsuitable for agriculture.
4. C: The main manmade cause of “dead zones” in portions of oceans and lakes that normally host abundant aquatic life is the use of chemical fertilizers. These fertilizers, which are high in nitrogen and phosphorous, enter lakes and rivers in water runoff and become concentrated in certain areas. This concentration, called eutrophication, eventually depletes the water’s oxygen levels and renders it incapable of supporting life.
5. C: The New Kingdom was the period during which no more pyramids were built in Egypt. The Pyramids were built between the years of 2630 and 1814 B.C.E., and the New Kingdom spanned from circa 1550-1070 B.C. As a result, the last pyramid was built approximately 264 years before the New Kingdom began. 2630 B.C.E. marked the beginning of the reign of the first Pharaoh, Djoser, who had the first pyramid built at Saqqara. 1814 B.C.E. marked the end of the reign of the last Pharaoh, Amenemhat III, who had the last pyramid built at Hawara. In between these years, a succession of pharaohs built many pyramids. The Old Kingdom (a) encompasses both the Third (d) and Fourth (e) Dynasties; therefore, all three of these choices encompass pyramid-building periods. Djoser’s had his first pyramid built during the Third Dynasty (d). The Pharaohs Kufu, Khafre, and Menkaure, respectively, build the famous Pyramids of Giza during the Fourth Dynasty during their reigns at different times between circa 2575 and 2467 B.C.E., the period of the Fourth Dynasty. The Middle Kingdom (b) encompassed the 11th through 14th Dynasties, from circa. 2080 to 1640 B.C.E.—also within the time period (2630-1814 B.C.E.) when pyramids were built by the Pharaohs.
6. B: The country and population that moved out and relocated was the large population of Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews in Algeria when that country became independent from France. The majority of these Algerian Jews evacuated Algeria and repatriated to France after the Second World War. The Chinese population in Singapore (a), the British population in the Cayman Islands (c), and the Russian population in Kazakhstan (d) represent situations in which the longtime settler populations and the minority indigenous populations make decolonization impractical (even when the minority and majority are somewhat close in numbers).
7. C Formulated in the early 19th century, Malthus’s theory that population increase would ultimately outpace increases in the means of subsistence did not anticipate technological advances in food production and birth control; nevertheless, the theory was highly influential in the formulation of subsequent economic and social policies.
8. D: Regional metamorphism occurs when a large area of rock is subjected to intense heat and pressure, while contact metamorphism occurs when magma is injected into surrounding rock, also known as country rock. When contact metamorphism occurs, the rocks closest to the hot magma undergo the greatest changes.
9. D: The most recently formed parts of the Earth’s crust can be found at mid-ocean ridges. New crust forms here when magma erupts from these ridges and pushes pre-existing crust horizontally towards the continental plates. Such ridges include the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the East Pacific Rise.
10. D: These are all geographically parts of Southeast Asia. The countries of Myanmar (Burma), Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand (a) are considered Mainland Southeast Asia, as are Vietnam and the Malay Peninsula (b). Brunei (b), East Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines (c) are considered Maritime Southeast Asia.