CLEP Introduction to Educational Psychology Practice Test Questions

1) _________________is the process of associating one occurrence with another until one of the occurrences happens automatically as a result of the other.

a) stimulus
b) conditioning
c) reinforcement
d) none of the above
e) all of the above

2) What is the name of the person whose research led to an important discovery in the study of conditioning?

a) John Broadus Watson
b) Ivan Pavlov
c) Edward Lee Thorndike
d) none of the above
e) all of the above

3) What needs to be added to a neutral stimulus for it to become a conditioned stimulus?

a) unconditioned stimulus
b) neutral stimulus
c) unconditioned response
d) conditioned response
e) conditioned stimulus

4) The law of effect is described as __________________________________.

a) a positive change which happens as a result of behavior, with a very high probability that the behavior will be duplicated in like situations
b) a positive change which happens as a result of behavior, with a very high probability that the behavior will not be duplicated in like situations
c) reinforcement given to curtail unwanted behavior
d) none of the above
e) all of the above

5) Describe the defining difference between operant conditioning and classical conditioning.

a) There is no difference.
b) The terms are opposites.
c) Classical conditioning is transferable to different situations while operant conditioning is not transferable to different situations.
d) Classical conditioning is transferable to similar situations while operant conditioning is isolated to a specific situation.
e) Classical conditioning is isolated to a specific situation while operant conditioning is transferable to similar situations.

6) Ringing a doorbell repeatedly until someone opens the door is an example of ____________.

a) positive reinforcement
b) negative reinforcement
c) positive punishment
d) negative punishment
e) none of the above

7) The point of _____________ is to decrease the likelihood of undesired behavior.

a) reinforcement
b) punishment
c) untargeted behavior
d) behaviorism
e) token economy

8) Ways in which behavior modification may be utilized in a classroom environment include __________________.

a) token economy
b) corporal punishment
c) planned ignoring
d) contingency contracting
e) all of the above

9) A technique used to elevate a child’s behavior to a desired outcome in which the child is shown/taught how to behave in a systematic way is known as _____________________.

a) the Premack principle
b) shaping
c) reinforcement
d) punishment
e) target behavior

10) ________________increases the probability of a behavior happening.

a) Self-reinforcement
b) Self-regulation
c) Perceived self-efficacy
d) Real self-efficacy
e) Vicarious reinforcement


CLEP Intro To Educational Psych Practice Question Answer Key

  1. The correct answer is “b,” conditioning. Conditioning is the process of associating one occurrence with another until one occurrence happens automatically as a result of the other. There are two types of conditioning: operant conditioning and classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is isolated to a particular situation while operant conditioning is transferable to similar situations. The stimulus is the situation that causes an event or influences the outcome of an occurrence. Elevating the probability that a behavior will happen again is known as reinforcement.
  2. The correct answer is “e,” all of the above. John Broadus Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and Edward Lee Thorndike all made important discoveries in the study of conditioning. Ivan Pavlov, a Nobel Prize winner, was a pioneering researcher in the development of classical conditioning procedures. John Broadus Watson (considered the founder of behaviorism); Edward Lee Thorndike and Burrhus Frederic Skinner were instrumental in developing the concept of operant conditioning. In terms of learning, the use or reinforcement is a vital part of the operant conditioning concept.
  3. The correct answer is “a,” unconditioned stimulus. An unconditioned stimulus is the situation or event that causes a natural and unconditioned response. An unconditioned stimulus needs to be added to a neutral stimulus for it to become a conditioned stimulus. The unconditioned stimulus should be added immediately after the neutral stimulus. Ivan Pavlov noticed that adding an unconditioned stimulus (meat powder) to a sound (the neutral stimulus) was a way of controlling the response through associating the sound with the meat powder. The conditioned stimulus (sound) resulted in the same response as the uncontrolled or unconditioned stimulus. Thus the response was termed a conditioned response.
  4. The correct answer is “a,” a positive change happens as a result of behavior, there is a very high probability that the behavior will be duplicated in like situations. Likewise, when a negative change occurs as a result of behavior, there is an extremely low chance of the behavior happening again. This is the essence of the law of effect which is the foundation of operant conditioning.
  5. The correct answer is “e.” Classical conditioning is isolated to a specific situation while operant conditioning is transferable to similar situations. This is the defining difference between operant conditioning and classical conditioning. Both are a process of associating one occurrence with another until one of the occurrences happens automatically as a result of the other.
  6. The correct answer is “b,” negative reinforcement. Negative reinforcement is doing something unpleasant to elicit a particular behavior. Negative punishment, on the other hand, is taking away or withholding something from a child because of unwanted behavior (no television because of inappropriate behavior). Positive reinforcement is rewarding a child for desired behavior (money for grades) while positive punishment is adding something unpleasant because of unwanted behavior such as scolding.
  7. The correct answer is “b,” punishment. The purpose of punishment is to decrease the likelihood of undesired behavior while the goal of reinforcement is to increase the likelihood of desirable behavior. Punishment either involves withholding something or doing something unpleasant to decrease unwanted behavior. On the other hand, reinforcement adds a negative or positive to achieve the desired behavior.
  8. The correct answer is “e,” all of the above. Token economy, corporal punishment, planned ignoring, contingency contracting are all ways in which behavior modification may be utilized in a classroom environment. Token economy and contingency contracting are examples of positive reinforcement. In both these cases, desired behavior is rewarded. Corporal punishment and planned ignoring are examples of positive punishment. In both cases, something negative is being added to decrease an undesired behavior.
  9. The correct answer is “b,” shaping. A technique used to elevate a child’s behavior to a desired outcome in which the child is systematically shown how to behave is known as shaping. Shaping modifies inconsistent or unwanted behavior by taking a step-by-step approach to teaching a child how to achieve the desired behavior. The Premack principle is another behavior modification technique that uses a preferred exercise or game as a reinforcement to get the desired behavior. No homework; no recess is an example of the Premack principle in use.
  10. The correct answer is “e,” vicarious reinforcement. When a child is an eyewitness to a certain behavior, it will impact the child more and often influence the child to change his own behavior. This is known as vicarious learning in the cognitive learning theory. Vicarious learning serves as either reinforcement or punishment. Vicarious reinforcement heightens the chance of a behavior happening. On the other hand, vicarious punishment reduces or suppresses how often a behavior occurs.

 

Last Updated: June 3, 2019