1. Which group of major parts and organs make up the immune system?
A. lymphatic system, spleen, tonsils, thymus, and bone marrow
B. brain, spinal cord, and nerve cells
C. heart, veins, arteries, and capillaries
D. nose, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs, and alveolus
2. Which of the following is an example of a tissue?
3. The adrenal glands are part of the:
A. immune system.
B. endocrine system.
C. lymphatic system.
D. respiratory system.
4. Which hormone is produced by the pineal gland?
5. How many organ systems are there in the human body?
6. The brain is part of the:
A. integumentary system.
B. nervous system.
C. endocrine system.
D. respiratory system.
7. How many basic tissue types does a human have?
8. Of the following, the blood vessel containing the least oxygenated blood is the:
B. vena cava.
C. pulmonary artery.
E. femoral vein.
9. The digestion of starch begins in the:
10. During the process of oogenesis, primary oocytes produce:
D. stem cells.
E. none of the above.
Anatomy and Physiology Answers
1. A: The immune system consists of the lymphatic system, spleen, tonsils, thymus, and bone marrow.
2. A: A chloroplast is an example of tissue. A liver is an organ, a mammal is a type of organism, and a hamstring is a muscle.
3. B: The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine system. They sit on the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate salt and water balance and influence blood pressure and heart rate.
4. C: Melatonin is produced by the pineal gland. One of the primary functions of melatonin is regulation of the circadian cycle, which is the rhythm of sleep and wakefulness. Insulin helps regulate the amount of glucose in the blood. Without insulin, the body is unable to convert blood sugar into energy. Testosterone is the main hormone produced by the testes; it is responsible for the development of adult male sex characteristics. Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, performs a number of functions, including quickening and strengthening of the heartbeat and dilation of the bronchioles. Epinephrine is one of the hormones secreted when the body senses danger.
5. C: There are 11 organ systems in the human body.
6. B: The brain is part of the nervous system.
7. A: There are four basic tissue types in humans: epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscular.
8. C: The pulmonary artery carries oxygen-depleted blood from the heart to the lungs, where CO2 is released and the supply of oxygen is replenished. This blood then returns to the heart through the pulmonary artery and is carried through the aorta and a series of branching arteries to the capillaries, where the bulk of gas exchange with the tissues occurs. Oxygen-depleted blood returns to the heart through branching veins (the femoral veins bring it from the legs) into the vena cava, which carries it again to the heart. Since the pulmonary artery is the last step before replenishment of the blood’s oxygen content, it contains the blood that is the most oxygen depleted.
9. A: The digestion of starch begins with its exposure to the enzyme amylase, which is present in saliva. Amylase attacks the glycosidic bonds in starch, cleaving them to release sugars. This is the reason why some starchy foods may taste sweet if they are chewed extensively. Another form of amylase is produced by the pancreas and continues the digestion of starches in the upper intestine. The di- and tri-saccharides, which are the initial products of this digestion, are eventually converted to glucose, a monosaccharide that is easily absorbed through the intestinal wall.
10. B: Oogenesis is the process that gives rise to the ovum, or egg, in mammals. The oocyte is the immature egg cell in the ovary. In humans, one oocyte matures during each menstrual cycle. It develops first into an intermediate form called the ootid and eventually into an ovum. The prefix oo- is derived from Greek and means “egg.”