1. The movie star always arrived at public _______ with an ________.
2. The introduction to the United States Constitution is known as the
4. The book’s content was so _______ that it received _______ reviews.
5. The vicious rumors were untrue but still _______ the politician’s ________.
6. The critic’s hurtful comments _____ the actress to the ______.
7. The audience laughed throughout the play. It was
8. The millionaire added a _______ to his will just before dying.
9. I looked up the referenced author in the ______ in the back of the textbook.
10. The orator’s fiery speech was the _______ for the ensuing ________.
1. C: An entourage is a group of associates or attendants that often accompanies a celebrity. Celebrities are known to arrive at public events with their entourages. A public action (A) has connotations of activism, as in a protest or demonstration; and an emissary is a messenger who is sent by someone rather than accompanying someone. An enclave (B) is a small group or area distinct from its larger surroundings (e.g., Chinatown is an enclave in San Francisco). Since it is in a certain location, an enclave cannot go to public functions. An interview (D) is a process that one can conduct, respond to, participate in, or observe, but cannot “arrive with.” While affairs can result in scandals (E), a scandal is not in a place where someone can arrive. One can participate in an affair, which is a process, but cannot arrive with it as with things or people.
2. D: The U.S. Constitution’s introduction is known as the Preamble. A preamble is defined as an introductory statement to a document. A preface (A) is an introductory essay or preliminary statement and a foreword (B) is an introductory comment, piece, or notes, but these are both found in books or other literature rather than in documents like the Constitution. The introduction to the Constitution is named the Preamble, not the Declaration (C): the Declaration of Independence is a separate document written before the Constitution was written. Procrit (E) is the brand name of a drug for treating anemia.
3. E: The outline of the mountains stood out as craggy shapes on the horizon. It is not logical to say colors appeared as shapes (A). Colors could stand out as bright, vivid, dark, light, soft, varied, etc., but colors themselves are not perceived or described as shapes (except if the colors cannot be seen at all but only perceived as shapes, and this is not stated in the sentence). Visible shapes (B) and colors (C) are not seen as textures, which are rough, smooth, porous, sharp, soft, etc. As such, textures also would not appear as lines (D).
4. A: Content that is controversial is subject to or provokes debate or disagreement. As such, it could receive mixed reviews. A book that is monotonous is tedious, lacking variation, and dull, and would not receive rave reviews, which give the highest praise (B). Similarly, a boring book would not receive laudatory (D) reviews, which are also high praise. If the content of the book is intriguing (C), it is fascinating and stimulates reader interest, so horrible reviews are not a logical response. A book that readers find exciting is not likely to receive indifferent (E) reviews, which show a lack of interest or response.
5. B: To impugn is to cast doubt on or to challenge, as vicious rumors often can do to a politician’s reputation. Rumors that are vicious would be unlikely to elevate, i.e., raise, one’s status or position (A); they would be more likely to lower or damage it. Rumors are things, not people, so they could not interrogate, i.e., question, the politician’s subordinates, i.e., underlings or employees (C). Rumors that are vicious would be unlikely to alleviate, i.e., relieve, a politician’s difficulties or problems (D). Vicious rumors would be equally unlikely to support, i.e., uphold or back up, a platform (E), i.e., the politician’s stated principles and/or plans.
6. C: A colloquial expression is that something hurtful “cut me (/her/him) to the quick.” This derives from the fact that when cutting our fingernails/toenails (or trimming our pet’s claws), cutting into the quick below the nail is very painful. This metaphor uses physical pain to represent emotional pain. Saying something hurtful “hit the actress to the head” (A) is ungrammatical. It “hit her in the head, “over the head,” or “on the head” as another metaphor, though not as familiar. It is illogical that hurtful comments “took her to the moon” (B), which usually means making her beyond happy/excited. It is illogical that hurtful comments would thrill her to the core (D). They would cut her, but “to the rapture” (E) makes no sense. Rapture (outside of religion) means ecstasy, joy, or delight. Rapture does not fit with hurt or cut; it is also neither grammatical nor a known colloquial expression to say something affected someone “to the rapture.”
7. D: Comedic is the quality of comedy, which is funny and/or has a happy ending. Tragic (A) is the quality of tragedy, which is not funny and has an unhappy ending. Horrific (B) means causing horror. The audience would not laugh throughout a play that was scary. Dramatic (C), aside from referring to drama (e.g., the dramatic arts), means moving, vivid, striking, involving high contrast or strong conflict, or effective. A dramatic play would evoke strong emotions, respect, and/or applause from an audience, but they would not laugh throughout it. Melancholy (E) is sad, so an audience would not laugh throughout a melancholy play.
8. E: A codicil is a supplement to a will that changes, adds, or clarifies something in the will. A prologue (A) is a preliminary or introductory piece before a book, poem, discourse, play, movie, or opera, but is not used with wills. A caveat (B) is a warning; it means “beware” in Latin. In legal terms, a caveat can be filed against probating a will. However, the millionaire in the question would not do this, as it is his own will (and he would be deceased by the time of probate). Formal (C) as an adjective means customary, conventional, ceremonial, or official, but does not fit the sentence context or structure: the article a and the sentence indicate a noun. Formal as a noun means a dance or a gown; neither is added to a will. A license (D) is an official permit, as to practice medicine, drive a car, sell real estate, etc., and is not added to a will.
9. B: A textbook often has an index near the back, following the actual text chapters. Many academic textbooks have both a subject index and an author index. When the textbook author(s) cites another author’s work in the body of chapter text, that author’s name will also appear alphabetically in the author index with the title of the book or article, journal name, publication date, page numbers, etc. An ibex (A) is a wild mountain goat with habitats in Eurasia and North Africa. A glossary (C) is also in the back of a textbook, but it is a list of words used in the text with brief definitions. A dictionary (D) is a separate reference book not found in the back of a textbook. An afterword (E) is also near the back of a textbook, but it is a statement or comments; referenced authors cannot be looked up in it.
10. A: The word catalyst comes from chemistry, wherein it is an agent that sets off a chemical reaction. In general vocabulary, it means someone/something that precipitates a change or event, or someone whose speech, energy, or enthusiasm augments others’ responses. A damper (B) depresses or damps, e.g., “The tragedy put a damper on the festivities.” Water or padding could be a damper on a physical explosion; soothing words/sounds/actions could be dampers on an emotional explosion; but a fiery speech is an unlikely damper. An epilogue (C) comes after a work like a book or a movie, so a speech could not be an epilogue for anything that ensued, i.e., followed. If a doctrine (belief) ensued from the speech, the speech would be its prologue, not its epilogue. A barrier (D) is an obstacle. A fiery speech would not block a movement that ensued, i.e., followed and/or resulted from it. A fiery speech could be an inspiration (E), but not for apathy, a lack of excitement or interest.